Linking trauma: concepts, causes and mechanisms in intimate relationships

Theoretical test

Fonseca, Nicole de QueirozLima [1],Oliveira, Bruno Quintino de [two]

Fonseca, Nicole de QueirozLima.Oliveira, Bruno Quintino de.Linking trauma: concepts, causes and mechanisms in intimate relationships.Multidisciplinary Scientific Magazine Core Conhecimento.Year.06, ed.11,vol.06, p.60-78.Novembertwo0two1.ISSN: two448-0959,AccessLink :, DOI: 10.3two749/

"I don't want to be becauseYo want to

And to love him to love him.

And to wait-whenYo wait for you

Passa Meu Coração do FrioAo Fogo.

Quero-you barely because you are,

You will be, hating you,Yo beg you,Yo beg you,

and to measure do meu traveler love

é não Ver-te and loving you like um ego… ”.

(Pablo Neruda - sonnet lxvi).



When, after aviolent incident, strong emotional ties are established to connect two people, the installation of a trauma called by literature is established as a bonding trauma.It is an emotional dependence between two people, in a relationship charACterized by periods of abuse,violence and imbalance of power, with links of intense connection, cognitive distortion and behavioral strategies of both individuals who paradoxically strengthen and maintain the link, which is reflected inThevicious circle ofviolence.However, there is a lACk of literature and scientific research on the subject in Brazil, which highlights the need for a refined and in -depth study, since the causes and effects of the bonding trauma are not yet exACtly clear, which makes itThe understanding and treatment of individuals, as well as their recovery, are a slow and painful process.Therefore, this investigation is guided by the question: What is the linkage trauma and what are its mechanisms?Thus, it was defined as a general objective to analyze the trauma of linking in love relationships, in order to give birth to the neuropsychological processes of the trauma generated in intimate relationships and investigate the reasons whyvictims remain in pathological relationships, alsoWe will address the functioning of Stockholm syndrome and posttraumatic stress invictims of abuse in love relationships such as fACtors that generate linking trauma.For the contextualization, problematization andvalidation of the theoretical framework used in the research carried out, the methodology used was the bibliographic review or bibliographic review, based on the reading, selection and analysis of texts of different genres, such as records, reviews and scientific articlesrelated to the subject and that were published in magazines and newspapers in the area.It was concluded that several emotional and neuropsychobiological fACtors are the cause of linking trauma to be established within a relationship.

Keywords: trauma, linking traum.


This research aims to analyze the linkage traum.There is much talk about psychological and sexual abuse within the emotional relationships and the effects that cause, however, the main objectives of this research are of two different and interconnected natures: a)Giving light to the neuropsychobiological processes of the trauma generated in theintimate relations;and b) investigate the reasons whyvictims remain in pathological relationships.

The lACk of literature and scientific research in this area in Brazil brings to light the need for a refined and in -depth study, since the causes and effects of the bonding trauma are not yet exACtly clear, which makes understanding andThe treatment of individuals, as well as their recovery, are a slow and painful process.Traumavictims need to learn to create relationships that are not based on fear and abuse of power, even if such abuse of power is perceived as natural and true (Bloom, 1999).

In common sense, there is the general idea that people who remain in relationships considered abusive make it motivated only by issues of financial, social dependence, low self -esteem and/or psychological dependence.Although such aspects can be relevant, studies indicate that linking trauma is what, in fACt, keeps subjects in precarious situations in their love relationships.In his work "The Betrayal Bond", Carnes (two019) explains that:

Trauma bonds são forms dysfunctionais ofLigação that ocorrem na presença de perigo, shame and abuse.Esses São Bem Relations Different dasLigações that naturally ocorrem we experienced a traumatic event as weights and the resulting result and uma união ou relement of UmaLeigação as a method of survival.Trauma bonds, on an outro side, occurrence when we stick à exata pessoa that é a fonte do medo, embarrass and abuse.This type ofLigação Não fACilitates recovery and resiliation, sabuting tais qualities em nós, and frequently deixam um impACt toLongPrazo, gerrically wrapping sedução e traição [3].(Carnes, two019,P.1two1).

The traumatic (or trauma) links are created when strong emotional ties are established to connect two people after an incident in which a person attACks, expressesviolent behavior, is abusive, intimidating and threatening.It is an emotional dependence between two people, in a relationship charACterized by periods of abuse,violence and imbalance of power.The root of this link is marked by feelings of intense connection, cognitive distortion and behavioral strategies of both individuals who, paradoxically, strengthen and maintain the link, which is reflected in thevicious circle ofviolence (Deyoung;Lowry, 199two).

From a physiological point ofview, it can be said that the human brain, in all its complexity, isACtivated during the psychosocial process of generation of linking trauma.Authors such as Van der Kolk (1989, 1991,1994,two001), Simonič and Osewska (two019), Fisher (two010) and Bloom (1999) postulate studies that show evidence that people who arevictims of frequent or prolonged abuse, also alsoAs a trauma in childhood, they are more likely to be involved in relationships with linking traumcrisis.

Second.Bloom (1999), in his work "Trauma TheoryAbbrevavated", such a mechanism works in a similar way to what happens in organisms of people dependent on narcotic substances:

[…] Essas Magic replACements Shame.Noviously, we smell up to evolução, fACe sense.Não endorphins barelyACalmam to anxiety, Melhoram nosso humor and diminuem to aggressiveness, but also with analgesics Já than related to morphine and heroin and heroin.Portanto, em temples of stresses, elas propiciam alivio for a dor or enough so that we will not be incapACitated by ferimentos that can prevent us from escaping perigo.Best pessos são expostes to rare episodes of intense stress, elas possuem less chances of showing quaisquer mudanças em seu biochemical system.OProblem resides pessoas that repeatedly exposites to extended stress experimencies.Tais pessooas, gerrically crianças, são expostes to high níveis of frequently endorphins.Uma Hipótese é a that individual can make 'viciados' em moods proporphins and, as a result, only sentem calmas when there is sob stress, comic, irritáveis and hyper excited when or stressed and relieved, quite similar to weight EmAbstinência of heroin.Isso é Shameado of ‘Vício Em Trauma '[4].(Bloom, 1999,P.9).

Several hormones generated in the human body are involved in the so -called "trauma addiction" that strengthens or induces the link with the abuser, such as oxytocin, which causes links and affectivity;endogenous opioids, responsible for pleasure, pain, abstinence and dependence;Corticotropin release fACtor, causing abstinence and stress;Dopamina - generating craving, desire, search.With so many neurochemical fACtors in deregulated states, it is extremely difficult for the subject to modulate their emotions and make decisions (Burkett; Young, two01two).

Other hormones influence the reACtion (or lACk of it) in the person in the fACe of a situation ofviolence and/or permanence of individuals in an abusive relationship.The perception that the punishment is imminentACtive two brain mechanisms in the subject: one that inhibits the previous behavior, which supposedly generated the reason for the punishment;and the other, which increases excitation levels in theviolent situation generated.The central nervous system, in this circumstance,ACtivates emergency triggers and generates the subject's behavioral and cognitive responses, to protect itself from a possible attACk (Burkett; Young, two01two).

Several studies show that serotonergic antagonists increase aggressiveness in response to stress and hyperreACtivity in response to stimuli, but the suppression of behaviors caused by punishment is reversed with serotonin blockers (Van der Kolk; Saporta, 1991),that raises the hypothesis that the decrease in serotonergic levels invictims of trauma and posttraumatic stress is responsible for the continuation of emergency responses to smaller stimuli, even when the cause of the trauma stops.

Van der Kolk and Saporta (1991) also explain that the severity of post -traumatic stress cases is related to cortisol levels in the subject's body, which supports the hypothesis that there is a chronic increase in cortisol in individuals affected by stressposttraumatic.

The term "Stockholm Syndrome" was coined in 1973, after the event of a robbery of a bank in Stockholm, Sweden, where criminals and hostages remained confined for six days (Martin, two005).There are reports that in these six days,victims have developed empathy, affection and complicity with their kidnappers.Because it was understood that it was a link between abuser andvictim, such a relationship seemed strange to the most attentive eyes, and the psychiatrist and criminologist Nils Bejet baptized this phenomenon of Stockholm syndrome.

Investigating other experiences throughout the history of mental health in the West, it was noted that this phenomenon was especially common in some religious cults, in relations with possible prisoners of war, in family relationships with cases of childrenvictims of abuse orincest, among other groups.It was also identified that this syndrome also develops in love relationships, in which thevictim ends up creating a traumatic connection with his abuser (George, two015).

According toGraham et al.(1995), there are four precursors of Stockholm syndrome: a) the potentially deadly sensation;b) apparent kindness;c) isolation;and d) the apparent inability to escape the situation.

Trauma devinculACión: conceptos, causas y mecanismos en las relACiones íntimas

Stockholm syndrome, then, is a defense mechanism for the individual to occupy such fACtors, which may include cognitive distortions and perception of reality (George, two015)

Such distortions are also called cognitive dissonances, byLeon Festinger, in his work "A Theory ofCognitive Dissonance" (1957).For the author, these dissonances exist when there is a conflict or incongruity between different beliefs, or when the subject fACes information that refutes their previous beliefs.Cognitive dissonance creates an uncomfortable psychological state, which motivates the creation of brain mechanisms in the form of strategies to reduce discomfort.

Applying such theory to an abusive relationship, thevictim ends up creating particular elaborations or even justifications for the behavior of his partner, since his main belief is that he is not being abused.Even in the fACe of fACts and evidence, thevictim is unable to refute his cognitive dissonance.Inview of the previous image, we can perceive that remaining in an abusive relationship is not a purely psychological or social problem.The identification of the occurrence of trauma in childhood and throughout life is essential to understand how neurological patterns and traumatic links are formed from trauma and remain throughout life (George, two015).

Individuals who are subject to high levels of stress and cortisol from childhood, for family abuse, abandonment, incest, among otherviolent situations, end unconsciously seeking or being attrACted by people who attend to behaviors considered abusive that can provide conflict and sensationof fear, shame and abuse to which they areACcustomed and that their brains need to modulate hormonal levels (Bloom, 1999).

The psychological and organic reACtions fACed by subjects who, at some point in their lives, decide to abandon relationships considered abusive are similar to those experienced by narcotic substances in abstinence, which brings strong indications of the presence of a mechanism that relatesHuman hormonal production with linking trauma (Bloom, 1999).

From the present, the relevance of this study is defended, which aims to investigate these dynamics so that the hostage individuals of these connections can effectively recover from the traumas - peasted and present - and thus prevent the cycle from repeatingin the future.

The need to deepen the understanding of the concept of linking traum, theoretical, social and political.

Violence, physical and emotional, in intimate relationships, is an integral and harmful phenomenon that occurs throughout society, without gender differentiation, affecting men, women, intersex people and other gender identities, giving rise tovarious psychological problems, social and even physical.

Understanding neuropsychological aspects in the trauma of linking and "trauma addiction" is avery important task, since, based on such competences, it will be possible to create clinical intervention strategies in this type of case.As an initial point for the future construction of a clinical protocol, it is understood that physiological stability,ACcording to Bloom (1999), cannot beAChieved while the individual is in a constant roller coaster of stimuli and responses.

For these reasons, this research seeks to raise a new perspective on abusive relationships and the permanence of subjects in these situations, since the lACk of scientific studies and publications in Brazil can make the approAChes to the situation obsolete or obsolete.

This investigation is guided by the following guiding question: What is the linkage trauma and what are its mechanisms?Thus, the general objective of this work is to analyze the trauma of linking in love relationships, in order to give birth to neuropsychobiological processes of trauma generated in intimate relationships and investigate the reasons whyvictims remain in pathological relationships.Specifically, it is intended: a) Explain what is the bonding trauma and how it occurs in an abusive relationship;b)Analyze the reason why a certain profile ofvictims of abuse remains in these relationships;and c) Explain the functioning of Stockholm Syndrome and posttraumatic stress invictims of abuse in love relationships such as fACtors that generate linking trauma.

The methodology used in this study is the review of literature or literature review.This type of methodology is intended to build a contextualization for the problem, as well as the analysis of the possibilities present in the literature consulted for the conception of the theoretical framework of the research.

To do this, readings of texts of different genres were made, such as records, reviews and scientific articles related to the subject and were published in magazines and newspapers in the area.Then, the material collected by the bibliographic survey was organized and analyzed.This analysis contributed to the contextualization, problematization andvalidation of the theoretical framework used in the research carried out.

two.Violence and intimate relationships

What drives someone to submit toviolence to the person who claims to love?The reasons mayvary, such as substance abuse;previous neurological conditions, which can affect behavior;personality disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder;Borderline personality disorder;and narcissistic personality disorder.

As much as the reasons can be diverse, the result is usually the same: thevictim suffers the consequences of abuse.Sometimes these couples cannot leave such relationships.The family, friends and those around thesevictims can tell them to end the relationship and leave the situation of suffering, appealing to logic;However, the natural functioning of the brain can prevent this from happening.

People who arevictims of trauma end up exposing themselves, apparently compulsively, to situations that refer to the original trauma.These behaviors that reACtivate trauma are rarely understood consciously as something related to experiences that occurred early in their lives.According to Van der Kolk (1989), humans are beings that depend on social support to create a sense of personal meaning, security, power and control.Even our biological maturation is influenced by how ties have formed since childhood.Trauma occurs when, both internally and externally, the subject does not have the right tools to deal with external threats.

Physical and emotional maturity, as well as innate physiologicalvariations in the process of reACting and perceiving danger, are fundamental in the individual's ability to deal with external threats.The presence of caregivers who provide security is of the utmost importance for the modulation of physiological excite.The figure of the caregiver in which the child can count to deal with situations for which he is not prepared is essential to develop biological resources to deal with threats for life (Van der Kolk, 1989).

According to Van der Kolk (1989), when people who should be the source of physical and emotional protection and nutrition become the source of the danger of which the child must be protected, tend to re -adapt and establish an internal meaning of security.Instead of turning against their caregivers and losing hope of obtaining any type of protection, they blame themselves and become fearful, extremely attAChed, anxious and obedient.

Thevulnerability of thevictim of a trauma at the beginning of life makes it prone to experience a trauma, again, in adulthood, since it becomes susceptible to such an event, due to its cognitive structure altered from childhood.For Van der Kolk (1989,P.391), "People who are exposed toviolence and abandonment in childhood begin to wait for them as part of life [5]".It is in this context that linking trauma becomes prone to settle.

The neurobiological changes that occur in abusevictims seem to be similar to those of the separation phase of a non -abusive relationship (Fisher et al., two010).Victims ofviolence in intimate relationships are different from othervictims ofviolence, because they are close to the aggressor.Therefore, this type ofviolence isACcompanied by a particular emotional dynamic, based on the attAChment among the aggressorvictim (Simonič; Osewska, two019).

When any of us falls in love and connects with someone new, the neurochemistry of the reward system responds, to establish that link.In circumstances of abuse, the brain has the same attAChment that anyone would have for someone who loves.However, forvictims of abuse, the loved one is not sure and the relationship is not stable (Burkett; Young, two01two).

What happens neurobiologically in a relationship composed of linking trauma is notvery different from what happens in a healthy relationship.The main difference is that, since the human brain is extremely sensitive to what is happening in the surrounding environment, it releases chemical substances in response to the abusive behaviors of the couple.If it moves or behaves aggressively, there will be, in the brain of the person with a history of trauma and that an abusive relationship is living, a differentiated reACtion, that someone without a history of traum.This is also true in cerebral neurochemistry, with endogenous opioids, dopamine and corticotrophine release fACtor.(Burkett; Young, two01two).


Van der Kolk (1994) explains in his work "The body keeps score: Memory and the evolving psychobiology of post-traumatic stress", which:

OPost-traumatic stress bean.OYontense stress andACcompanied in the endogenous neuro-Hormônios that responded to stress, such as cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine,vasopressin, oceocin and endogenous opioids.ESSESAJUDAM HORMNIES OR ORGANISM TO MOBILIZARA Energy needed to lid.Em um organism that works Bem, or stress produces rapid and pronounced hormone.No Entanto, or stressful and persistent stressYonibe to efficACy of ResposaAo stress and induz dessensitização [6].(Van der Kolk,1994,P.4).

Postraumatic stress can be identified through five categories of symptoms, which are: distressing, recurring and involuntary intrusive memories of the traumatic event;distress distressing dreams, in which the content and / or sensation of dreams are related to the traumatic event;Dissociative reACtions (for example, flashbACks) in which the individual feels orACts as if the traumatic event was happening again;Intense or prolonged psychological anguish in the fACe of exposure to internal or external signs that symbolize or resemble some aspect of the traumatic event;Intense physiological reACtions to internal or external signs that symbolize or resemble some aspect of the traumatic event (AmericanPsychiatricAssociation, two014).

Such symptoms cause high levels of confusion and anguish for survivors, who do not understand how they suddenly got out of control in their own minds and bodies.Unexing anger or tears, lACk of breath, increased heart rate, tremors, memory loss, concentration problems, insomnia, nightmares and emotional numbness can kidnap an identity and a life.

According to Van der Kolk (two001), after trauma, the human brain undergoes biological changes that would not have experienced if no trauma had occurred.The impACt of these changes is especially exACerbated by three main deregulations of brain function:

a) Overestimulated tonsils: after trauma, there is a tendency of the individual to experience emotions such as a physical state, instead ofverbally encoded experiences.

b) Decrease in hippocampus: an increase in cortisol stress hormone, toxic to the hippocampus, makes it reduce in size, suggesting loss of cell mass.This makes it less effective to make the synaptic connections required for memory consolidation.This interruption keeps the body and mind stimulated in reACtive mode, since none of the elements receive the message that the threat has changed in the past.

c)Lateralization:van der Kolk (two001) informs, in its study, that there is a tendency to a lateralization towards the right hemisphere of the brain, responsible for evaluating the emotional importance of the information received and of the regional and hormonal regulation of the responses of the responsesTo these stimuli.That is, the right hemisphere of the brain is hyperACtivated and, in contrast, the Broca area, part of the left hemisphere responsible for translating personal experiences inverbal communication, has a decrease in the use of oxygen due to exposure to memories of the memories of theTraumatic event.

Given the above, it is observed that the memory of the traumatic event, for the brain, is as if the individual was living the situation again, and can see, listen and feel the sensory elements associated with trauma.There is also physiological deterioration when it comes to exposing traumatic experience usingverbal communication, as well as the dissociation of feelings (Van der Kolk,two001).

Based on the psychobiology of trauma, it is observed that the individual's brain functionThey are caused by such relationships (Van der Kolk, 1989).


Graham et al.(1995) developed the Stockholm Syndrome Theory, specifically linked to theviolence prACticed in an intimate relationship, based on psychology and behavior of groups such as sect members, prisoners of concentration camps, civilians arrested in Chinese communist prisons, prisonersof war, abused children,victims of incest and prostitutes who had pimps.She argues that four precursors are necessary for the development of Stockholm syndrome: the perceived threat to survival, the perception of goodness, isolation and perception of the inability to escape.

Stockholm syndrome represents a defense mechanism to treat these fACtors, including cognitive and perceptual distortions.Sixty -six items were listed byGraham (behaviors, attitudes and beliefs) as linked to the syndrome.On the basis of these items,Graham developed a 49 items scale to measure Stockholm syndrome in relationships (George, two015).

On the original scale,Graham et al.(1995) found that the items were widely represented by three categories: central stocoling syndrome, psychological damage and love addiction.

Central Stockholm Syndrome contained central aspects of Stockholm syndrome and described cognitive distortions and interpersonal traumas.These included rationalizing or minimizing theviolent behavior of a couple, the behavior of self -ACcusation against the failures or behaviors of the couple, and identifying love in the context of fear.

Psychological damage captured depression, low self -esteem and interpersonal difficulties.

The dependence on love was typified by a strong belief that survival in itself depended on the affection of a couple, extreme idolatry and the belief that without a couple there would be nothing to live for (George, two015).

Romantic love can be considered an addiction, since it demonstrates charACteristics of addiction, such as: intensely focused attention of the subject in a preferred object (in this case, individual), sudden and decontextualized humor changes, intense and uncontrollable desire, obsession, obsessionWith an object / individual, compulsion, distortion of reality, emotional dependence, personality changes, take high risks to fulfill desires connected to that object / individual, and the loss of self -control against one's desire.Romantic love tends to be a constructive form of addiction when it is reciprocated, but can become a destructive addition when rejected (Fisher et al., two010).

With this dynamic in the cycle ofviolence, love and rejection, a specific form of connection between the two couples is created, which is mainly based on emotional dynamics and interconnection, by which thevictim, despite their rational recognition ofViolence, intimately feels that she is not able to simply abandon the abusive couple who, in turn, does not change her behavior pattern.Instead of ending the relationship (and even if he does, he returns after a while), thevictim ends up strengthening his link with the aggressor.In this way, the complexity of the abusive relationship is deepened and the cycle ofviolence is repeated (Simonič; Osewska, two019).

Dutton andPainter (1981, 1993) described this type of link as a traumatic bonding, offering a broader description of thevictim's response dynamics and perpetrator, with predictable and unpredictable patterns ofviolence and responses to it.

two.3 link trauma

The linking trauma is the attAChment to an abusive relationship and its result is a traumatic affective link, created in the cycle ofviolence, which occurs without the individual realizing.Victims can ignore the subtle signs of abuse when the relationship is still early and are not aware of imminent emotional abuse;However, as the relationship extends and the ties are deepened, the pattern ofviolent and abusive behavior of a part of the relationship tends to be clarified (Dutton;Painter, 1993).

In general, at the beginning of abusive relationships, the episodes of abuse are mild and the pattern ofviolence is not yet clear.In addition, the aggressor says that he regrets and apologizes, and thevictimACcepts them, which reinforces the emotional bond.(Dutton;Painter, 1993).This phase can only be an early short stage of the abusive relationship or last long periods until one enters a new phase of theviolence.

Continuing with the abusive relationship, follow the path of the cycle ofviolence and the new phase is charACterized by the increase in abuse.Thevictim can believe that something is wrong with her and that she is responsible for changing something in itself, which would avoidviolence.Cognitive reACtions such as self -ACcusation, guilt, introjection, transfer of abuse of abuse, and not the aggressor are triggered, and configuring a representation of events and even a distorted self -representation.This distorted notion can temporarily serve as a social justification to deal with abuse and a rational explanation for this, however, by taking thevictim to continue in the relationship, such a position contributes to thevictim's inability to finally end the cycleofviolence (Dutton;Painter, 1981).

Two charACteristics ofviolent relationships contribute to the formation of a bonding traumhoney". El desequilibrio de poder se produce cuando un individuo, que desempeña un papel subordinado, desarrolla una baja autoestima, reduce su autoeficACia y sevuelve más dependiente de la parejaviolenta, es decir, la persona en posición dominante(Dutton;Painter, 1993).

A patriarchal social structure, charACterized by stereotyped gender roles, can also contribute to this.If the couple in dominant position is abusive, thevictim ends up being emotionally and existentially.This creates a feeling of helplessness in the subject and strengthens attAChment, because thevictim, who sees herself as weak, internalizes the negative perception of the aggressor about him, making him even more dependent and impotent, which creates a strong affective linkWith the person who looks as stronger (Simonič; Osewska, two019).

The dependence of the person perceived as more fragile hides, in fACt, the dependence and impotence of the aggressor, because it also depends on thevictim.For this reason, the aggressor temporarily interruptsviolent behavior, for fear of having crossed the line and thevictim abandons him.The anxiety that arises in the aggressor leads to appearance of appeasement, with the interruption of physical andverbalviolence, but generally still retaining psychological manipulation.In this way, the aggressor tries to keep thevictim beside him, given the possibility of being abandoned.Using attAChment theory, which examines intimate relationships between adults as attAChment relationships, anxiety thatACcompanies the possibility of losing the person to whom it is united is the basis of such a pathological relationship (Dutton; White, two01two).

According to Johnson (two008), attAChment needs in a relationship are healthy, but in the case of abusive relationships, the problem arises when such needs are created in a context of uncertainty, generated by the conflict.The security of relationships helps people regulate their emotions, process information and communicate clearly.Those who have healthy ties can openly admit their insecurity and resort to others in search of support, receiving reception and an adequate response to the situation.

Violence, however, is a dysfunctional way to remain close to the person who clings when the need to link is awakens.Thevictim gets anxious, which makes it difficult for him to abandon the relationship, as well as his aggressor, who wishes to maintain control over thevictim, so that she does not leave him (Finkel; Slotter, two007).

In this case, there is a paradox:violence increases the anguish of thevictim, which wishes to escape, while raising the need for links that can regulate such anguish, which seeks in people who consider stronger than her than her.Thus, the aggressor becomes a source of fear and, at the same time, protection.The traumatic link is, therefore, a trauma source, as well as a link that provides security (Simonič; Osewska, two019).

Similar dynamics are present in Stockholm syndrome, in which thevictim develops a strong emotional bond with the aggressor.This syndrome, based on cognitive distortions and perception and attAChment, is, in this context, a defense mechanism to deal with such fACtors.

The linking trauma is also formed and maintained due to a particularACtivity at the organic level of both members of the couple in an abusive relationship, charACterized by the deregulation in the secretion of dopamine, endogenous opioids, corticotrophin and oxytocin, hormones thatcontribute to "trauma addiction".(Burkett; Young, two01two).

Oxytocin causes avery powerful neurological response, which promotes the creation of links and the construction of trust with the couple.The attAChment and connection between thevictim and the aggressor are the same as those of all other relationships: reinforced by excess oxytocin.

Dopamine stimulates the desire, search and seed of the other.

Endogenous opioids are associated with the regulation of the proportion of pleasure and pain, abstinence and dependence.

Corticotrophin release is associated with the perception of stressful situations and stress reACtions.In case ofviolence, intense neurochemical processes are generallyACtivated.The problem is that such neurobiological processes, whichACtivate attAChment to relieve stress, occur in toxic and harmful relationships, which are also a source of stress, which makes these processes disregulate and causes thevictim to become more and moredependent on the aggressor, causing avicious circle, such as the cycle of domesticviolence (Fisher et al., two010).

3.Final considerations

Inview of the above, the central questioning carried out at the beginning of this research on the definition of linking traumLinking is established within a relationship, and the understanding of thesevariables becomes fundamental, both for the therapeutic elaboration of the traumatic link, and for the process of treatment ofvictims and change of their dissonant and harmful patterns.

In addition, it is known that the increase invulnerability to the formation of linkage traumas in a love relationship is linked to individuals with a history of abuse andviolence in childhood.

Such experiences of early life interrupt the natural process of creating healthy links and alterinferior to deal with the perception of danger and the formation of positive links, making you feel inability to leave the relationship.

Interpersonal regimes in adult individuals with a history of abuse tend to be negative and incomprobable in different relationships.These schemes can motivate behavior that increases the probability of revictimization.

Thus, it is understood that the proposed general objective is clearly contemplated: to analyze the linkage trauma in love relationships, in order to give birth to the neuropsychological processes of traumThey remain in pathological relationships.

In addition, inview of the entire theoretical compound that was carried out, it is believed that this study is of significant importance to bring out some aspects related to the bonding trauma, without exhausting, however, the issue.Therefore, it is intended that this article is the basis for additional studies on this institute contributing positively to the dissemination of knowledge.


AmericanPsychiatricAssociation -APA.Diagnostic and statistical manual of Mentais Transctors: DSM-V.PortoAlegre:Artmed, two014.

Bloom, SandraL.Trauma TheoryAbbrevavated.[s.l.: s.n.], 1999.Delive.CA/WP-CONTENTENT/UPLOADS/two018/05/TRAUMA-THEORY-ABBREVIATED.PDF.ACESO EM:APR.two0two1.

Burkett, JamesP.;Young,Larry J.The Behavioral,Anatomical andPharmACologicalParallels Between SocialAttAChment,Love andAddiction.PsychopharmACology,v.twotwo4, n.1 p.1–two6, two01two.HAVEVEL EM: https: // www.NCBI.NLM.nih.GOV/PMC/ARTICLES/PMC3469771/.ACESO EM: 15 DEZ.two0two0.

Meats,Patrickj.BETRAYAL BOND: BREAKING FREE OF EXPLOITUCE RELATIONSHIPS.[s.l.]: Health Communications,Yoncorporated, two019.

Deyoung, m.;Lowry, ha.Traumatic Bonding: ClinicalYomplications inYoncest.Child Welfare, 199two Mar-Apr; 71 (two): 165-175.

Dutton, Donald;Painter, s.L.Traumatic Bonding: The Development of EmotionalAttAChments in Battered Women and Other Relationships ofYontermittentAbuse.Victimology, 6, 139–155, 1981.

Dutton, DonaldG.;Painter, Susan.EmotionalAttAChments inAbusive Relationships: a Test of Traumatic Bonding Theory.Violence and Victims.v.8, n.twoP.105–1two0, 1993.

Dutton, DonaldG.;White, Katherine R.AttAChment insecurity and intimate partnerviolence.Aggression and Violent Behavior,v.17, n.5 p.475–481, two01two.

FESTINGER,Leon.Cognitive Dissonance. ScientificAmerican,v.two07, n.4, p.93–106, 196two.

Fisher, Helen and.;et al. Reward,Addiction, and Emotion Regulation SystemsAssociated With Rejection inLove. Journal of Neurophysiology,v.104, n.1 p.51–60, two010.

George, Vera.Traumatic bonding and intimate partner violence.[s.l.: s.n.], two015.Dispose Em: https: // EM: Nov two3.two0two0.

Graham, d.L.;Rawlings, e.Yo.;YoHMS, K.;LATIMER, D.;Foliano, j.;Thompson, a.;Suttman, k.;Farrington, m.;Hacker, r.A scale for identifying “Stockholm syndrome” reACtions in young dating women: fACtor structure, reliability, andvalidity.Violence Vict, 1995 Spring; 10 (1): 3-twotwo.PMID: 8555117.

Johnson, m.P.A typology of domesticviolence: intimate terrorism,violent resistance, and situational coupleviolence. Boston: Northeastern UniversityPress, two008.

MARTINA.G.As psychological sequelae of torture.Psicologia: Ciência eProfissão [online]. two005,v.two5, n.3, pp.434-449.Delivery Em:.Acesso em: twotwoAgotwo0two1.

Simonič, Barbara;Osewska, Elzbieta. Traumatic bonding in intimate partnerviolence:A Relational Family Therapy approACh.Family Forum.,v.9, n.10, two019.two5167/FF/109two, P. 71–90,two0two0.

Van der Kolk, Bessel a.The compulsion to repeat the trauma.Psychiatric Clinics of NorthAmerica,v.1two, n.twoP.389–411, 1989.

Van der Kolk, B.A. The Body Keeps the Score: Memory and the EvolvingPsychobiology ofPosttraumatic Stress. Harvard Review ofPsychiatry,v.1, n.5 p.two53–two65, Jan.1994.

Van der Kolk, Bessel a.;Saporta, Jose.The Biological Response to Psychic Traum.Anxiety Research,v.4, n.3, p.199–two1two, 1991.

Van der Kolk, B.A. The psychobiology and psychopharmACology ofPTSD. HumanPsychopharmACology: Clinical and Experimental,v.16, n.S1, p.S49 - S64, Jan.two001.

Appendix - Reference Note

3.Free translation of the authors.

4.Free translation of the authors.

5.Free translation of the authors.

6.Free translation of the authors.

[1] Estudiante de psicología.ORCID: 0000-0003-1739-953two

[two] Estudiante de doctorado en TeoríaPsicoanalítica – UFRJ, Magíster enPsicología Clínica –PUC RJ, Especialista en Salud Mental – HU/UFJF,Licenciado enPsicología – UFF.ORCID: 0000-000two-7956-7899

Enviado: Octubre detwo0two1.

Aprobado: Noviembre detwo0two1.

5/5 - (1voto)